Terrorism involves the systematic use of terror as a means of coercion. Terrorism refers to the violent acts that are made to create fear or terror among the civilians. The acts are carried out by religious groups, political groups on any other group. Terrorism has become a major issue in the society. This is because of the adverse effects caused by terrorism. Terrorism has led to loose of life and destruction of property. For example, the September 11 attack caused more damage to United States citizens, economy and has led to increase in death rates.
The terrorism attack led to slow economic growth in the country as the government had to spend more money on rebuilding the infrastructure and other buildings. The attack affected first responders negatively. It affected them physically, psychologically and cognitive. Terrorism has implications on public safety policing, order, security in the country. It has implications on the rights and freedoms of the citizens and weaponry and technology. This paper analyzes the concept of terrorism, its implications and impact.
Discussion concept of terrorism, its implication and impact
The definition of terrorism has become a major issue. People define terrorism differently. Some think terrorism involves violent behaviors that are acted against the civilians (Spencer, 2006). Lack of clear definition for terrorism has made it difficulty for countries to prevent terrorism. It has undermined the international efforts to prevent effects of terrorism. This has in turn led to increase in deaths and destruction of property. Most people have carried out research to determine the causes of terrorism. The researchers argue that understanding the causes of terrorism will help develop the right measures to prevent terrorism. The researchers have identified various factors that motivate terrorists to carry out terrorists attacks. For instance, terrorists are motivated by social and political injustices to commit terrorist activities. Social and political injustices are common in many countries (Spencer, 2006).
The social injustices have resulted from unequal distribution of resources in the countries. Most people live below the poverty line due to lack of resources. This has resulted to acts of revenge as people want to get enough resources. For instance, the social injustices in Iraq and Afghanistan led to terrorists attacks in the country and other countries. The resources in these countries have not been distributed equally. This has made it difficulty for the various groups to live in harmony (Transnational terrorism and the rule of law, 2008).
Most terrorists do not only experience poverty and inequality, but they come from middle class families and poor environments. The terrorists face social injustices when they grow up. In addition, the terrorists always have stress and depression as they try to cope up with their stressful life. Researchers claim that terrorists join terrorists groups like Al-queda because of boredom and to have a better life. Terrorists like other criminals are influenced by the surrounding environment and drugs to commit crime. For example, some of the terrorists are influenced by drugs like heroin and the environment to join terrorist attacks.
People living in terrorist environment are more likely to be involved in terrorism activities than those who live in better places (Kisangani, Nafziger & Wayne, 2007). This is because they acquire criminal behaviors from the environment. The experience of social injustices has motivated the groups to commit social revolutionary terrorism. The great difference in income distribution in the country has led to development of social revolutionary political violence. It has also led to development of ideological terrorism (Spencer, 2006).
In addition, political injustices in the countries have led to increase in terrorists activities. Research has shown that there is a close correlation between terrorism and democracy. Lack of democracy has led to high rate of terrorist activities in the country. Democratic nations have less opposition from terrorists. This is because the countries recognized the rights of every citizen in the country. On the other hand countries that have no strong democracy are more prone to terrorist activities (Kisangani, Nafziger & Wayne, 2007).
This is because the states do not have power to control their territories. This makes it easy for terrorists to establish training facilities and base in the country. Most people use terrorist’s activities to pursue their rights. Majority of the people using violence are denied their democratic rights and other rights. Most people in the society believe that violence is the best method to bring changeand acquire their rights. This forces terrorists to use terrorist’s activities to achieve their goals. There are various terrorists attacks that resulted from social and political injustices. For instance, the Zionists bombed the British in 1930 so as to create a Jewish state. Also, the Irish Republican army bombed the English target in 1980s to get back their land. They believed that their land was being colonized by the British. Political terrorism is carried out with a major goal or objective. For example, political terrorism is carried out with political goals or social goals (Martin, 2010).
Most countries have found it difficulty to control political terrorism because they do not understand the main objective of the terrorism. Researchers claim that understanding the goals of political terrorism will help eliminate terrorism in many countries. Most terrorists carry out political terrorism to bring political change. In this case, the terrorist target people who hinder them from bringing change in the country. The terrorists opt to use violence to bring change because of various reasons. First, the terrorists are denied the chance to expresses their views using formal channels. This makes it difficulty for them to get the right help. Second, the terrorists view terrorism as the most effective method to shake the status quos in the country and also prevent emergence of a state affairs. Additionally the terrorists believe that terrorism is the best method to attack the government as it prevents them from ruling. Most people have used the historical injustices and grievances to justify their terrorism acts. This has led to terrorism as the groups fight for their rights (Martin, 2010).
Inequality of power has led to terrorism. This happens when international and local powers have more powers than the opposition groups in the country. The later decides to use violence to get military and political control. Terrorism gives an opportunity of getting high political impact. Hence, political injustices have led to increase in terrorist activities (Transnational terrorism and the rule of law, 2008).
Apart from political and social injustices, religious factors have also led to terrorism. People argue that religion does not contribute to terrorist activities, but, some religions encourage terrorist activities as a means of getting want they want. For instance, some Muslim groups encourage terrorism as it is not against their teachings. The groups target people who are against their religious practices. Takfiri is a group of Muslims who practice takfir. The word Takfir is derived from Kafir meaning impure (Griset &Mahan, 2003).
The concept refers to groups that are considered excommunicated from Muslims practices. The groups do not benefit from the protection of the Muslim laws and they are condemned to death. Takfiris encourage violence as the legitimate method to achieve their religious and political goals. Most people have associated Takfiris with violence and terrorism in many countries. The Takfiris believe in Islam and the teaching and they do not encourage an actions or statements that deviate their teaching. The Takfiris have other believes (Griset &Mahan, 2003).
For example, they consider any political authority that does not abide by the Islam teaching as illegitimate. Hence, the group considers violence against such nations as legal. In addition, the Takfiris believe in murder. They assume that one should murder so as to go to heaven. The difference in opinion among religious groups has led to increase in violence and terrorism. The Islam have remained committed to terrorists acts as they views them illegal (Martin, 2010).
Moreover, rapid modernization and urbanization in areas experiencing high economic growth has led to high rates of terrorists activities. Rapid modernization and urbanization has led to development of ideological terrorism. For instance, countries that have experienced high economic growth and urbanization due to sudden wealth are more likely to experience terrorist activities than those who have no sudden wealth. This is because the countries change their traditional norms and social patterns to embrace change. This results to terrorist activities as the society does not have strong culture (Transnational terrorism and the rule of law, 2008).
Corrupt governments have also led to terrorism as they lead to emergence of opposition. This in turn forces people to use terrorist activities to replace the current government with a legitimate government. Corruption and poor governance have caused terrorism in many countries (Griset &Mahan, 2003). For example, corruption and poor governance have led to increase in terrorism in Iraq and Afghanistan. Further, discrimination has also led to ethno-nationalist terrorism. People discriminated because of their religious or ethnic backgrounds are more likely to involve themselves in ethno-nationalist terrorism. Minority groups are always deprived their right to get equal economic and social opportunities with other groups. In addition, the groups are denied their rights like using their cultural language and practicing their religion. Ethnic nationalism is more likely to justify terrorist attacks than an inclusive society (Martin, 2010).
The failure to incorporate emerging social groups and classes into the state activities has given rise to terrorism. Some illegal groups and social classes are not included in the nations activities like political activities. This allows them to oppose the political system. The groups are excluded because they hold views that are not inline with the basic values in the country. The groups excluded from the political system tend to be frustrated. The groups search for alternative ways to express their views and bring change. To some of the groups, terrorism is the best method to do so (Kisangani, Nafziger & Wayne, 2007).
Apart from the root causes of terrorism, there are trigger causes of terrorism. There are various trigger causes of terrorism. First, the existence of constant grievances among the excluded groups like minority groups can trigger violence. The minority groups are more likely to engage in violence and terrorism so as to express their views. Second, the lack of opportunity to participate in political activities also triggers terrorisms (Griset &Mahan, 2003).
The groups excluded from participating in political activities will use terrorism to achieve their political goals. Third, the proactive events that call for revenge trigger terrorism in the country. For instance, disputed elections and excessive use of force can lead to terrorism. Understanding the root causes and trigger causes for terrorism will help develop effective counterterrorism measures. Most countries have not been able to control terrorism activities because they are not aware of the root causes and trigger causes of terrorism. This has hindered prevention of terrorism in the country (Kisangani, Nafziger & Wayne, 2007).
Implication of terrorism
Terrorism has negative and positive implication on the country and its people. First, terrorism affects economic growth in the country. Most terrorist attacks cause destruction on property. This forces the government to use a lot of finances in building the infrastructure. though the united states was experiencing slow economic growth before the September 11 attack, the attack worsened the economic growth in the country. Terrorism has implication on training of military officers. Military training is mainly focused in fulfilling three objectives. The military training is focused on the security, defense and other operations in the country that are aimed at eliminating insecurity (Bellany, 2007).
The training is meant to make the military force become operationally capable. The military officers should be able to accomplish the mission stated successfully and at the right time. The training of military personnel is directed on the main capabilities of the armed personnel. This is mostly in areas of security and defense. Once a basic combat capability is achieved, then the officers are provided with additional mission that is related to the training. The mission helps them acquire new skills needed to perform their main missions (Bellany, 2007).
The training of military officers has changed greatly for the last ten years as the training helps the officers prevent terrorism. The training has incorporated courses that offer police officers with adequate skills to help them prevent terrorism activities effectively. Before, the training helped the armed forces acquire skills to maintain security in the country, but the armed officers are supposed to acquire skills to prevent terrorism. The officers are supposed to develop counter terrorism measures to prevent terrorism in the country (Pastor, 2009).
Further, the terrorism has implication on the security and order .Most countries have strengthen security policies to prevent terrorist attacks in the country .For example, countries have developed counter terrorism measures like racial profiling to prevent terrorism activities. An example, of counter terrorism measures is racial profiling. In addition, the countries have strengthened their security in the airport and along the borders. This is to enhance security in the country. Terrorist use different routes to access the target country. For example, terrorists use borders and airport to enter the country. Most people living and entering the country are scrutinized to identify the terrorist (Pastor, 2009).
In addition, terrorism has a great implication for law enforcement agencies. Most countries have not established laws to govern terrorism activities in the country. This has made it difficulty for the countries to prevent terrorism attacks. The increase in terrorist’s attacks has forced governments to improve the policing in law enforcement agencies to prevent terrorism. Different countrified have adopted different strategies and laws to prevent terrorism. For instance, United States government has adopted racial profiling as a means of preventing terrorist attacks. Racial, profiling allows the country to identify terrorist in the air port and the borders. Though racial profiling has a lot of disadvantages to the citizens, the method has helped reduced terrorist activities in the country. Additionally, terrorism has also affected how agencies in the country work. For example, the laws enforcement agencies are supposed to work hand in hand with airport and other institutions in the country to prevent terrorism (Pastor, 2009).
Terrorism has implication on the rights and freedoms of many citizens in the country like citizens in countries linked with terrorist activities. For example, the United States government associated the September 11 attack with Muslims from Arab countries. The country in turn enforced measures to improve security in the country. The country adopted the racial profiling to help identify Muslims from the Arab countries. This group was not allowed to enter the country. Racial profiling affects various rights accorded to the citizens in the country. For example, racial profiling affects the religious rights of certain groups in the country as the groups fear worshiping. This is mostly among the groups associated with terrorist activities like Muslims. It also affects the freedom of movement of the citizens. Most citizens from terrorist countries are not allowed to enter or leave different countries like United States. The increase in terrorists activities might lead to more harm to the citizens and foreigners than harm. This is because the groups will be affected economically and socially (Murray, 2005).
Also, the terrorism activities have positive implications on the weaponry and technology. Terrorists use biological weapons and weapons of mass destructions. The rise in terrorist activities have led to increase in use of biological weapons and weapons of mass destructions (Bellany, 2007). Most countries like Iraq have adopted current technological advances to develop biological weapons and other weapons. This has helped improve technological advanced in the country. On the other hand, increase in terrorists acts has led to negative effects on the society and environment. The biological weapons and other weapons used cause environmental degradation and death of citizens in the country. Researchers argue that the increased in terrorists attacks in the world will lead to more weapons being developed to meet the demand. This will in turn lead to more technological advances as countries will adopt there latest technology (Bellany, 2007).
Terrorism will have implications on the policing model (Pastor, 2009). The country will have to change the current policies in the country to accommodate news policies that can help prevent terrorism. The terrorism activities have affected community policing and public safety policing and law enforcement agency policing as stated above. The community policing is aimed at developing measures to control terrorism threats and their effects. The law enforcement agencies will together with the community to develop policies to prevent terrorism threats (Matthew, Hickman, Brian &Reaves, 2001).
The community policing will have to accommodate new policies that can prevent terrorism effectively. Consequently, the public safety policing will change .The law enforcement agencies and other agencies will have to identity the terrorism threats. Then develop new policies that prevent their threats. The public safety policing should be able to provide proactive response to terrorist activities in the country. It should enable citizens to detect terrorist activities, prepare for terrific activities and overcome them (Murray, 2005).
Terrorism has negative effects on first responders. Terrorism like other disasters has physical, psychological and cognitive impact on the first responders. First responders play an important role in helping terrorist’s victims and casualties. The first responders are supposed to have enough training so as to be able to carry out their activities effectively (Matthew, Hickman, Brian &Reaves, 2001). The first responders will needed more training so as to be able to handle terrorist activities. Most first responders suffer physical damage during terrorist attacks. This makes it difficulty for the first responders to perform their duties. Also, the first responders suffer psychological after the terrorist attackers. The first responders experience depression and street due to loose of loved ones and also their worker mates. The territories activities may affect the cognitive functioning of first responders. For example, it can affect cognitive functions like memory due to injury or stress (Murray, 2005).
Terrorism has become a major concern in the society. This is because of the negative effects caused by terrorism. Most people have carried out research to explain the causes of terrorism. But the research has not been effective. This is because of lack of enough information on the causes of terrorism. Also, the researchers have not had enough resources to use. This has hindered the efforts to prevent terrorism. There are various root causes and triggers cause of terrorism. The main causes of terrorism are political and social injustice. Most terrorists have faced social injustices. For example, the terrorists have faced poverty and unequal distribution of resources. The gap between the rich and the poor has widened greatly for the last three decades. This has resulted to unequal distribution of income. Hence, this has caused violence in the country. Political injustices like exclusion of certain groups and poor governance have also led to violence.
Most groups excluded from the political systems use terrorism as a means to achieve their political goals. Corrupt governments have also forced minority groups to use violence to eliminate them. Religious factors have also led to violence. Most religions in the country encourage violence. For example, the Takfiris encourage violence as a means of attaining their political and religious goals. Also, the groups encourage murder as it is inline with their teaching. The religious beliefs have led to exclusion of some groups and using violence to revenge. Other factors that have led to violence are drug abuse and poor environment. Terrorists like other criminals in the poor environment to carry out terrorist attacks. Apart from the root causes, there are trigger causes. There are various factors that trigger violence. For example, proactive events like excessive use of excessive force causes some groups to use revenge to achieve their goals. Also, exclusion of some groups from participating in the political groups leads to violence.
Understanding the root causes and triggers of terrorism will help prevent terrorism. It will help countries develop effective counter terrorism measures. Terrorism has various implication on the weaponry, technology, policing model and rights and freedom. Terrorism has led to technological advances as many countries develop biological weapons and mass destruction weapons. The countries have adopted the current technology to develop the weapons. Also, it has led to establishment of different types of weapon used in the country. It has also led to improvement in order maintaining and security in the country Terrorism has affected the rights and freedom of most citizens. For example it has affected freedom of worship and movement. It has led to changes in policing model.